The Porcupine Abyssal Plain Sustained Observatory

The Porcupine Abyssal Plain Sustained Observatory (PAP-SO) is a sustained, multidisciplinary observatory in the North Atlantic coordinated by the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton.

For over 20 years the observatory has provided key time series datasets for analysing the effect of climate change on the open ocean and deep-sea ecosystems.

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The North Atlantic consists of a complicated layering of currents going in many different directions

The twilight zone is the part of the ocean where sunlight is able to penetrate to a limited extent; in open ocean this can be as deep as 1000m

The seabed of the Porcupine Abyssal Plain lies 4850m (3 miles) below the ocean surface, and is home to abundant and varied wildlife