Southern Ocean Carbon and Heat Impact on Climate is a Horizon 2020 project aiming to quantify and understand fluxes at the air-sea-ice interface, through the ocean mixed layer and into the dense bottom waters formed in the Southern Ocean.
The Role of the Southern Ocean in the Earth System programme builds on ORCHESTRA to study the biological and physical contributors to the carbon cycle in the Southern Ocean and its impact on ocean carbon uptake and sequestration.
This is a JWCRP NERC/Met Office collaboration that pools both expertise and resources around the development, exploitation and evaluation of future UK Earth System modelling tools. UKESM1 will be the main UK contribution to the WCRP 6th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6), which will provide underpinning science knowledge for the next IPCC Assessment Report (AR6). UKESM has two overriding objectives:
- To develop, apply and evaluate a world-leading Earth System Model
- To grow and support a community of UK ESM scientists
NERC input is provided through a cross-centre NC programme (UKESM-LTSM) and by a number of centre-specific component model development efforts. ORCHESTRA scientists will collaborate in assessing marine carbon cycle processes in the UKESM simulations, including future projections, and in addition model improvements developed within ORCHESTRA will provide input to future UKESM model development. See www.jwcrp.org.uk/research-activity/ukesm.asp
Controls over Ocean Mesopelagic Interior Carbon Storage, COMICS is a four year collaborative research project that aims to quantify the flow of carbon in the ocean’s ‘twilight’ zone in order to more accurately model global climate change. See www.comics.ac.uk
2015– ongoing SOCCOM
The Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modelling project (SOCCOM) is an NSF-sponsored program which will deploy up to 200 biogeochemical Argo floats to measure carbon, nutrients, and oxygen in the Southern Ocean. Numerical modelling will reduce the uncertainty in our climate model projections of future climate associated with poor simulation of the Southern Ocean. See http://soccom.princeton.edu
ESA CCI for SST The project funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) as part the Agency’s Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Programme. The project focuses on the following issues relating to Sea Surface Temperature (SST):
- Analysis of scientific requirements relating to climate;
- Development of improved scientific algorithms;
- Inter-comparison and selection of algorithms;
- System prototyping and production of SST datasets;
- Product validation and end-user assessment.
AltantOS aims to improve and innovate Atlantic observing by using the Framework of Ocean Observing to obtain an international, more sustainable, more efficient, more integrated, and fit-for-purpose system contributing to the Trans-Atlantic Research Alliance, the GEO (Group on Earth Observations) global initiative Blue Planet, and GOOS (Global Ocean Observing Systems). Hence, the AtlantOS initiative will have a long-lasting and sustainable contribution to the societal, economic and scientific benefit arising from this integrated approach. This EU Horizon 2020 project has 62 partners in 18 countries. See www.atlantos-h2020.eu
2000– ongoing ARGO
Securing Multidisciplinary UndeRstanding and Prediction of Hiatus and Surge events. The central aim of the research is to better understand the causes of periods where the rate of global-mean surface temperature is increased or decreased at decadal time-scales compared with long term (multi-decadal) trends. The multi-disciplinary research team are seeking to understand both the slowdown in the rate of warming since the late 1990s and also earlier hiatus and surge events. See www.smurphs.leeds.ac.uk
The Diagnosing Earth’s Energy Pathways in the Climate system consortium is a 4-year project that is tackling the questions:
- What mechanisms explain the reduced global surface warming rate since around 2000?
- Where is the excess energy due to rising greenhouse gas concentrations currently accumulating in the climate system?
1992–2015 SRb1 Drake Passage
Transects are performed annually whenever possible. See http://projects.noc.ac.uk/drake-passage
A 3-year deployment of the autonomous air-sea flux system AutoFlux on the RRS James Clark Ross, making covariance measurements of the air-sea transfer of momentum, sensible heat and latent heat, including 3 full seasons (October to May) in the Southern Ocean. See http://projects.noc.ac.uk/wages
Diapycnal and Isopycnal Mixing Experiment in the Southern Ocean. See http://dimes.ucsd.edu/en
Antarctic Deep Water Rates of Export. See http://projects.noc.ac.uk/andrex