The importance of particle motion to fishes and invertebrates

Arthur N Popper and Anthony D Hawkins

This paper considers the importance of particle motion to fishes and invertebrates and the steps that need to be taken to improve knowledge of its effects.  It is aimed at scientists investigating the impact of sounds on fishes and invertebrates but it is also relevant to regulators, those preparing environmental impact assessments, and to industries creating underwater sound.  The overall aim of this paper is to ensure that proper attention is paid to particle motion as a stimulus when evaluating the effects of sound upon aquatic life.

(c) 2018 Acoustical Society of America https://doi.org/10.1121/1.5021594